The Bulgarian wine has a long history and is produced one of the oldest wine-producing regions worldwide. The privatization process in the cultivation and production was completed successfully in 1999, and the industry is now 100% private.
Nowadays, the wine sector is the most competitive sector in the Bulgarian food and drinks industry and plays a very important role in the economy. Also, the wine contributes to the progressive development of rural areas and less fertile areas, to maintain the ecological balance and to encourage the orderly and efficient use of natural resources.
Furthermore, the wine sector preserves the diversity and cultural traditions of the regions. Finally, the vineyards and wineries provide jobs and elevate the country's image abroad.
There are vineyards on most regions of Bulgaria. For administrative and geographical reasons, the vineyards are divided in five regions. Every region has its own special characteristics and specialties which differentiate them form the others.
There are more than 25 varieties of white and red wines with a protected designation of origin and a protected geographical indication.
According to the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV), the total wine production in Bulgaria in 2010 is estimated at 1.426 million hectoliters, representing a continuous decline in recent years, a decrease of 2% compared to 2009. The share of Bulgarian wine production is estimated at around 0.93% of the total EU production (for 2009).
About 80% of the total production is exported abroad. Main destination of the Bulgarian wines are the UK, the USA, Canada, Norway, the Netherlands and Japan. In 2008 there was a significant fall in wine exports from Bulgaria, while in the first semester of 2009 the fall reached -70% in comparison to the first semester of 2008. However, it is estimated that wine exports from Bulgaria in Third countries remain stable and have upward trends.
The main market for Bulgarian wine remains Russia. The first quarter of 2010 exports were increased by 161% in comparison with 2009, summing 5.320 hl (2.037,67 hl in 2009) and value € 4.681.886.
DOBROGEA REGION FROM ROMANIA, LOCATED AT THE MOUTH OF THE DANUBE RIVER, AT THE POINT WHERE IT POURS INTO THE BLACK SEA, HAS BEEN FAMOUS FOR ITS WINES, FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT.
Romania is a country located in south-eastern Europe which has a culture of wine with ancient origins. That's why in the north-eastern Romania, specifically at Cucuteni, were discovered Black Feteasca seeds (local sort of vine) which are about 7000 years old.
Historical chronicles tell us of vines that grew naturally from prehistoric times. In the Iliad, Homer (IX-VIII century BC) speaks of the Greeks who came to Romania in search of wine, which is a widespread practice since 2700 BC.
Inhabited since ancient times by Dacians (Thracians from the north of the Danube river) and Scythian, Scythia Minor - current Dobrogea region - this land was fruitful both for vine cultivation and trade for the locals to do with the three Greek castles - Histria, Tomis and Callatis - based from the seventh century BC near the Pont Euxin, attracted by the wealth of Dobrogean coast of the Black Sea.
Here, wine was one of the products that stood at the basis of trade development between the two cultures; wines thus obtained in Dacia were transported in many countries, even to Egypt, bringing their fame to each of these places.
Father of history, Herodotus, described many Getae traditions, including the use of wine in certain rituals.
On numerous secular and religious monuments found in the Dobrogea Plateau mythical characters appear wearing crowns with sprouts and grapes, as a way of demonstrating the cult of Dionysus the god of wine and good humor.
Another personality who brings an eulogy to Romanian wines is also the poet Ovid, who lived between 43 BC and 17 AD, exiled to Tomis (Constanta today) by the Roman emperor Augustus, mentioning in "Tristia" and "Pontic epistles" the existence of vineyards in the area:"Autumn is messed with must ... and in winter time wine freezes in the vessel so that you remove it as boulders retaining the form of the pot / And instead of sipping the foam, you eat pieces of wine ".
Both in Dacia occupied by Romans and on the territories where free Dacians lived, the cultivation of vines continued with the same intensity, as an eloquent proof of it, is Dacia Felix medal issued in 112 by Emperor Trajan which represents a woman sitting on a rock holding two children on her knees who hold an ear of wheat and grapes - the symbol of wealth in Dacia.
Murfatlar Vineyards from Dobrogea Plateau (located in the south-eastern Romania) is an area with a continental climate, with relief protective effect against cold currents prevailing from the north-eastern region and the favorable impact of the Black Sea, which moderates excessive heat and frost, gives the area a particular microclimate favorable for obtaining a wide variety of wines.
After 2000 years since Ovid's writings about the wine in Dobrogea , today these wines enjoy broad international recognition which is reflected by the numerous awards received from the major international competitions.
The best wine of the Murfatlar vineyard is considered to be «The tear of Ovid» the only liqueur wine produced in Romania, fortified with distilled wine, made by special technology of oxidative type.
Romania is a an European viticultural country with traditions , a member of the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) since 1927, the owner of a significant surface cultivated with vine.
According to data provided by the National Office of Vine and Wine products (the body managing at the national level the appellation of origin and geographical indications for wine products), in 2011, the area planted with vines for wine in Romania was 181,770 ha, of which the area planted with vines for wines with the appellation of controlled origin (ACO) was 27,700 ha and for the wine with a geographical indication (GI) was 15,853 ha. Total wine production in 2011 was about 4.05 million hectoliters, of which 2.16 million were noble wines.
According to the latest reports of the OIV, Romania is ranked 11th in the world wine production for 2012 with an estimated value of 4.05 million hl.
In 2011, China was the fourth commercial partner of Romania on the export of wine, exporting the quantity of 800.6 tons worth 2297.1 thousand euro, and in 2010 the export of wine to China was 990.7 tones, with a value of 2168.1 thousand euro, according to the National Statistics Institute (NSI).
In 2011 wine exports to Russia were in the quantity of 105.3 tones, worth 200,100 euro, which decreased in comparison to 2010 when they exported 272.5 tons worth 216.100 euro, according to NSI.